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What Programming Language Does Ethereum Use?

The competition in the crypto space is still very premature. It is not known yet which cryptocurrency will be massively adopted by the mainstream world. Bitcoin, XRP, LTC, IOTA, VeChain, Linkchain, everybody is trying to get ahead of its competition because they believe that sooner or later people would adopt cryptocurrencies. However, among all those cryptocurrencies, there’s one crypto that has caught everybody’s attention more than everything else. That crypto is Ethereum.

Yes, Ethereum became the first crypto that has been massively adopted by DApp (decentralized application) developers. Unlike XRP or BTC, Ethereum has the native capabilities to create smart contracts and it enabled a wide range of possibilities that were not thinkable before. Nowadays people can create games, finance applications, and even decentralized exchanges on top of Ethereum blockchain.

But, here’s the question. If you intend to build on Ethereum, you might want to know what programming language does Ethereum use? Many people are also asking the same question every day. Unfortunately, there’s not one single answer to that broad question. There are different components of Ethereum as they are written in different languages.

EVM And Smart Contracts

Before, we can answer the question, we need to know that there are two groups when it comes to the Ethereum programming languages. The Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) and the smart contracts. 

Smart Contracts – When people ask the question about Ethereum programming language, usually they refer to smart contracts. Many developers want to know how can they start building something on Ethereum. The way to help them to do it is to understand the programming language of Ethereum smart contracts. 

Technically, smart contracts are compiled to bytecode in the Ethereum Virtual Machine before they get deployed and executed into the blockchain. There are different languages that can help you write a smart contract in Ethereum. The commonly used native language is called Solidity – which is different from most mainstream programming languages out there. Solidity is like a library and it is similar to both Java and C language. Other programming languages that you can use to write Ethereum smart contracts are LLL (similar to Lisp) and Viper (similar to Python)

All the applications in the Ethereum world are called DApps or decentralized applications. To create any kind of Dapp, you need to write a smart contract. So, if you intend to be a fluent Ethereum application developer, it’s better if you learn more about Solidity.

Ethereum Virtual Machine (EVM) – The second group of Ethereum component where programming language matters is called the Ethereum Virtual Machine. Basically, Ethereum blockchain is decentralized and it runs on a decentralized virtual machine which is called the EVM. This EVM is a runtime environment with native capabilities to execute various scripts. The Ethereum blockchain is supported by thousands of nodes and each of them runs EVM implementation. 

What’s great about EVM is that they are built using various mainstream programming languages – which are C++, Phyton, Go, Java, Javascript, Rust, Ruby, and some other languages. In its relation to DApps, EVM basically works as the host of the DApps.

The Beauty Of Ethereum

It is important to acknowledge that the Ethereum world is built by various developers around the world with different capabilities. Ethereum Foundation has created an official documentation about programming languages used in the development of Ethereum technology itself – which are Python, Go, C++, and Java. However, due to the open-source nature of Ethereum, many Ethereum developers have contributed to the platform by using JavaScript, Haskell, Ruby, and Rust. 

The beauty of Ethereum is that there’s no one strict programming language that the developers need to use. The EVM itself is operating on bytecode instructions, and the Ethereum Foundation does not want to force developers to use one single language. That being said, Ethereum smart contracts typically run on Solidity as the majority of Ethereum DApp developers use at the moment.


To answer the question “what programming language does Ethereum use?”, we need to identify which part of Ethereum they are talking about.

If it is about smart contracts – the answer is: Solidity, LLL, and Viper (with Solidity being the most used language).

If it is about EVM – the answer is: C++, Phyton, Go, Java, Javascript, Rust, Ruby.

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